Ashford phi 103 (informal logic) complete course week 1-5 a+ graded

Ashford PHI 103 Week 1 Complete

 

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PHI 103 Week 1 DQ 1

 

Consider an argument you have recently had with a friend, family member, manager, co-worker, or someone else. Identify the topic of the argument and present that argument in premise-conclusion form, identifying both the premises and conclusion.

 

PHI 103 Week 1 DQ 2

 

Logic can do a great deal in helping us understand our arguments. Explain what advantages we obtain by studying logic in terms of improving our reasoning. Consider a debate over whether prayer should be allowed in public schools. Explain what logic can and cannot do. In other words, what kinds of questions and topics are not decided by logical analysis?

 

Ashford PHI 103

Week 1 Quiz 10 MCQ’s

1.      Which of these could be seen as a premise in an argument?

2.      A valid deductive argument, the premises of which are accepted as true, shows

3.      “You didn’t like that book; so you probably don’t like to read” is

4.      In the statement, “You didn’t like that restaurant; so you probably don’t like to eat out,” “you probably don’t like to out” is the

5.      If a reason that is not relevant to the conclusion is given,

6.      Which of the following is most likely to be a conclusion?

7.      Premises and conclusions have which of the following in common?

8.      A five year old boy who refuses to listen to reasons for going to bed could be called

9.      Reasons given to support a conclusion are called

10.  An argument can have

 

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 2 Complete

 

PHI 103 Week 2 DQ 1

 

Construct a deductive argument that is valid but not sound. Then, construct a valid deductive argument that is sound. Be sure to put the argument in premise-conclusion form.

 

PHI 103 Week 2 DQ 2

 

Construct an inductive argument for a specific conclusion. Then, explain what you might do to make this inductive argument stronger, either by revising the premises or by revising the conclusion.

·        PHI 103 Week 2 Assignment (Pro-Choice) – 1100+ Words

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 2 Quiz

10 MCQ’s

1.      “10 is less than 100; 100 is less than 1,000; consequently, 10 is less than 1,000” is an example of a

2.      One way to make an inductive argument stronger is to

3.      All sound arguments are valid, but not all valid arguments are sound. This means

4.      Inductive arguments should never be characterized as

5.      Inductive arguments are evaluated in terms of

6.      A valid argument is one that, if its premises are accepted as true, has

7.      A “good” deductive argument must at least be

8.      Assume you are given a sound argument. What do you know about it?

9.      One way to make an inductive argument stronger is to

10.  In logic, arguments are never described as

 

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 3 Complete

 

PHI 103 Week 3 DQ 1

 

Considering the fallacies discussed in Chapter Four of an Introduction to Logic, construct three different arguments that display distinct fallacies. Give an explanation of why each makes a mistake in drawing the conclusion it does. Review your classmates’ examples and see if they, in fact, commit the fallacy identified.

 

PHI 103 Week 3 DQ 2

 

One rich source of fallacies is the media: television, radio, magazines, and the Internet (including, of course, commercials.) Identify two distinct fallacies you see committed in the media. Do you think it is more likely that you will not be fooled by these fallacies having studied logic? What do you think those presenting these arguments assume about the logical skills of their viewers? Is this a good or bad assumption for them to make?

 

·         PHI 103 Week 3 Assignment (The Impact of Stereotyping Groups) 1300+ Words

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz

10 MCQ’s

1.     “China uses too much oil. So they shouldn’t develop their industry” may commit which fallacy?

2.     “Julie started carrying a rabbit’s foot, then she won the lottery. The rabbit’s foot must have caused her to win the lottery” commits a(n)

3.     A person who is shown his or her argument commits a fallacy should

4.     A fallacy is an argument that

5.     “If that wasn’t illegal, then it wouldn’t be against the law” may commit which fallacy?

6.     “My husband snores. All men must snore” commits which of these fallacies.

7.     After being told that she is being punished for lying, a child responds by telling her mother that she also lied. This response may involve which fallacy?

8.     “You should read this book. Everybody likes it so it must be good” may commit which fallacy?

9.     “I bought a pair of shoes from that store that immediately fell apart. Their shoes are no good” may commit which fallacy?

10.  “The Senator wants to cut spending on police. I guess she doesn’t care if we all get murdered” may commit which fallacy?

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 4 Complete

 

PHI 103 Week 4 DQ 1

 

As stated in our text book “scientists design experiments and try to obtain results verifying or disproving a hypothesis, but philosophers are the driving force in determining what factors determine the validity of scientific results.” (Mosser, 2011). Karl Popper’s philosophy of science uses modus as the central method of disconfirming, or falsifying, scientific hypotheses.

PHI 103 Week 4 DQ 2

 

Mary is poor. She has not been able to find a job and has two children she needs to feed. Assume Mary is forced to let her children go hungry or steal some food from a local grocery store. Which should she do? Construct an argument that supports Mary’s decision to steal the food or an argument that shows why Mary should not steal the food. Critique the arguments offered by your classmates.

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 4 Quiz

10 MCQ’s

1.      A good way to establish a conclusion as true, or probable, is to

2.      Logicians regard the following as the meaning of the word “argument.”

3.      A strongly supported claim in science should be regarded as

4.      Examining reasons and constructing arguments can help in

5.      If the word “should” appears in a sentence, that sentence will always involve an ethical claim.

6.      Descartes worried a great deal about the threat posed by which of the following?

7.      “If I move to Texas, I will need air conditioning. I don’t need air conditioning. So I didn’t move to Texas” is an argument form known as

8.      A radical skeptic might be willing to doubt which of the following?

9.      French philosopher René Descartes tried to show that

10.  To support a scientific hypothesis, one might

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 4 Critical Thinking Quiz

25 MCQ’s

1.     <11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because

2.     <11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?

3.     <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because

4.     <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence

5.     <21{1[2(24)24]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses

6.     <11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author

7.     <21{2[2(12)36]}>Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

8.     <21{2[1(01)25]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

9.     <11{2[3(02)26]}>Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true?

10.  <11{3[1(03)39]}> Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT:

11.  <11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above?

12.  <11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint

13.  <21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra

14.  <21{4[1(10)54]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight

 

 

Ashford PHI 103 Week 5 Complete

 

PHI 103 Week 5 DQ 1

Write two arguments in English, one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens. Then, write the arguments in symbols using sentence letters and truth-functional connectives. (If your computer does not have all the symbols needed, use some other symbol you do have access to and explain what its meaning is.)

What advantages does being able to symbolize our arguments provide? Are there disadvantages to using this technique to make the structure of our arguments more explicit and clear?

PHI 103 Week 5 DQ 2

 

Imagine someone asks you what you have learned in your logic class and what you found to be the most useful information you learned there. Is it important for people to study logic? What kinds of mistakes might they make without having been exposed to a careful study of reasoning provided by logic? Offer your response to these questions, and compare your answers to your classmates’ responses

 

·        Ashford PHI 103 Week 5 Assignment (Legalized Abortion) 2700+ Words

Ashford PHI 103 Week 5 Quiz

10 MCQ’s

1.      The sentence “P → Q” is read as

2.      “P v Q” is best interpreted as

3.      What is the truth value of the sentence “P v ~ P”?

4.      If P is false, and Q is false, the truth-value of “P ↔Q” is

5.      “Julie and Kurt got married and had a baby” is best symbolized as

6.      “~ P v Q” is best read as

7.      One of the disadvantages of using truth tables is

8.      A sentence is said to be truth-functional if and only if

9.      A conditional sentence with a false antecedent is always

10.  In the truth table for an invalid argument,

 

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